Verawaty Verawaty, Ade Kemala Jaya, Restu Pratiwi


Abstrak: Implikasi Likuiditas Perusahaan bagi Opinion Shopping. Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh opinion shopping terhadap biaya audit abnormal, likuiditas, profitabilitas, dan lamanya perikatan audit. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode regresi logistic terhadap 40 perusahaan terbuka sektor manufaktur di Indonesia. Hasil analisis mununjukkan bahwa perusahaan mengalami kendala jika kurang likuid karena tidak dapat memenuhi kompensasi bagi stakeholder kreditur. Hal ini diyakini memperkuat probabilitas manajemen untuk melakukan opinion shopping demi mendapat opini wajar tanpa pengecualian. Oleh karena itu, akuntan profesional harus memegang teguh kode etik profesi untuk menjaga integritas dengan mengeluarkan opini sesuai kondisi yang sebenarnya.


Abstract: The Implication of Company Liquidation for Opinion Shopping. This study examines the effect of opinion shopping on abnormal audit costs, liquidity, profitability, and length of the audit engagement. This study uses logistic regression method for 40 open companies in the Indonesia manufacturing sector. The results of the analysis indicate that the companies have a problem if it is less liquid because cannot fulfill compensation for creditor stakeholders. These are believed to strengthen the probability of management to conduct opinion shopping in order to get unqualified opinion. Therefore, the professional accountants must uphold the professional code of ethics by issuing opinions according to actual conditions.


opini audit; imbal jasa audit; profitabilitas

Full Text:



Abidin, S., Beattie, V., & Goodacre, A. (2010). Audit Market Structure, Fees and Choice in a Period of Structural Change: Evidence from the UK – 1998–2003. The British Accounting Review, 42(3), 187–206.

Al-Dhamari, R. A. A., & Chandren, S. (2018). Audit Partners Gender, Auditor Quality and Clients Value Relevance. Global Business Review, 19(4), 952–967.

Al‐Thuneibat, A. A., Issa, R. T. I. A., & Baker, R. A. A. (2011). Do Audit Tenure and Firm Size Contribute to Audit Quality? Empirical Evidence from Jordan. Managerial Auditing Journal, 26(4), 317-334.

Alali, F., Elder, R., & Zhou, J. (2017). An Analysis of Big 4 Pricing and Firm Size: The Differential Impact of Demand and Supply Shocks on Large and Small Clients. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance.

Alzeban, A., & Sawan, N. (2016). The Relationship between Adherence of Internal Audit with Standards and Audit Fees. Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, 14(1), 72-85.

Asthana, S. C., & Boone, J. P. (2012). Abnormal Audit Fee and Audit Quality. AUDITING: A Journal of Practice & Theory, 31(3), 1–22.

Azami, Z. & Salehi, T. (2017). The Relationship between Audit Report Delay and Investment Opportunities. Eurasian Business Review, 7(3), 437-449.

Azizkhani, M., Daghani, R., & Shailer, G. (2018). Audit Firm Tenure and Audit Quality in a Constrained Market. The International Journal of Accounting, 53(3), 167-182.

Ball, F., Tyler, J., & Wells, P. (2015). Is Audit Quality Impacted by Auditor Relationships? Journal of Contemporary Accounting & Economics, 11(2), 166-181.

Bills, K. L., & Cunningham, L. M. (2015). How Small Audit Firm Membership in Associations, Networks, and Alliances Can Impact Audit Quality and Audit Fees. Current Issues in Auditing, 9(2), 29-35.

Brasel, K., Doxey, M. M., Grenier, J. H., & Reffett, A. (2016). Risk Disclosure Preceding Negative Outcomes: The Effects of Reporting Critical Audit Matters on Judgments of Auditor Liability. Current Issues in Auditing, 10(2), 1-10.

Brown, J. O., & Popova, V. K. (2016). The Interplay of Management Incentives and Audit Committee Communication on Auditor Judgment. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 28(1), 27-40.

Bronson, S. N., Ghosh, A. A., & Hogan, C. E. (2017). Audit Fee Differential, Audit Effort, and Litigation Risk: An Examination of ADR Firms. Contemporary Accounting Research, 34(1), 83-117.

Budisantoso, T., Rahmawati, R., Bandi, B., & Probohudono, A. (2017). Determinant of Downward Auditor Switching. Jurnal Akuntansi Multiparadigma, 8(3), 444-457.

Burnett, B., Chen, H., & Gunny, K. (2018). Auditor-Provided Lobbying Service and Audit Quality. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 33(3), 402–434.

Cahan, S. F., Godfrey, J. M., Hamilton, J., & Jeter, D. C. (2015). The Association between Client‐specific Investment Opportunities and Audit Fees of Industry Specialists and Non‐Specialists. International Journal of Auditing, 19(2), 57-71.

Cao, J., Chen, F. & Higgs, J. L. (2016). Late for a Very Important Date: Financial Reporting and Audit Implications of Late 10-K Filings. Review of Accounting Studies, 21(2), 633-671.

Carson, E. (2013), Discussion of ‘Strategic Pricing by Big 4 Audit Firms in Private Client Segments’. Accounting and Finance, 53(4), 995-999.

Cassell, C. A., Hansen, J. C., Myers, L. A., & Seidel, T. A. (2017). Does the Timing of Auditor Changes Affect Audit Quality? Evidence From the Initial Year of the Audit Engagement. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 32(1), 1-27.

Casterella, J. R., & Johnston, D. (2013). Can the Academic Literature Contribute to the Debate Over Mandatory Audit Firm Rotation? Research in Accounting Regulation, 25(1), 108-116.

Chen, L., Krishnan, G. V., & Yu, W. (2018). The Relation between Audit Fee Cuts During the Global Financial Crisis and Earnings Quality and Audit Quality. Advances in Accounting, 43, 14-31.

Chen, S., Sun, S. Y. J., & Wu, D. (2010). Client Importance, Institutional Improvements, and Audit Quality in China: An Office and Individual Auditor Level Analysis. The Accounting Review, 85(1), 127–158.

Chen, Y., Gul, F. A., Truong, C., & Veeraraghavan, M. (2016). Auditor Client Specific Knowledge and Internal Control Weakness: Some Evidence on the Role of Auditor Tenure and Geographic Distance. Journal of Contemporary Accounting & Economics, 12(2), 121-140.

Choi, S., Choi, Y. S., & Kim, B. J. (2018). Auditors' Strategic Audit Pricing: Evidence from the Pre- and Post-IFRS Periods. AUDITING: A Journal of Practice & Theory, 37(4), 75-94.

Chu, B., & Hsu, Y. (2018). Non-Audit Services and Audit Quality --- The Effect of Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Asia Pacific Management Review, 23(3), 201-208.

Dao, M., & Pham, T. (2014). Audit Tenure, Auditor Specialization and Audit Report Lag. Managerial Auditing Journal, 29(6), 490-512.

Darmadi, S. (2016). Ownership Concentration, Family Control, and Auditor Choice: Evidence from an Emerging Market. Asian Review of Accounting, 24(1), 19-42.

Daugherty, B. E., Dickins, D., & Fennema, M. G. B. (2014). Offshoring Audit Tasks and Jurors' Evaluations of Damage Awards Against Auditors. Current Issues in Auditing, 8(1), 1-6.

DeFond, M. L., & Lennox, C. S. (2011). The Effect of SOX on Small Auditor Exits and Audit Quality. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 52(1), 21-40.

Donatella, P., Haraldsson, M., & Tagesson, T. (2018). Do Audit Firm and Audit Costs/Fees Influence Earnings Management in Swedish Municipalities? International Review of Administrative Sciences, 84(1), 1-25.

Dutillieux, W., Stokes, D., & Willekens, M. (2013). Strategic Pricing by Big 4 Audit Firms in Private Client Segments. Accounting and Finance, 53(4), 961-994.

Elder, R. J., Lowensohn, S., & Reck, J. L. (2015). Audit Firm Rotation, Auditor Specialization, and Audit Quality in the Municipal Audit Context. Journal of Governmental & Nonprofit Accounting, 4(1), 73-100.

Engel, E., Hayes, R. M., & Wang, X. (2010). Audit Committee Compensation and the Demand for Monitoring of the Financial Reporting Process. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 49(1–2), 136–154.

Evans, L., & Schwartz, J. (2014). The Effect of Concentration and Regulation on Audit Fees: An Application of Panel Data Techniques. Journal of Empirical Finance, 27, 130-144.

Fargher, N. L., Jiang, A., & Yu, Y. (2018). Further Evidence on the Effect of Regulation on the Exit of Small Auditors from the Audit Market and Resulting Audit Quality. AUDITING: A Journal of Practice & Theory, 37(4), 95-115.

Fleming, D., Hee, K., & Romanus, R. N. (2014). Auditor Industry Specialization and Audit Fees Surrounding Section 404 Implementation. Review of Accounting and Finance, 13(4), 353-370.

Foster, B. P., & Shastri, T. (2016). Determinants of Going Concern Opinions and Audit Fees for Development Stage Enterprises. Advances in Accounting, 33, 66-84.

Fung, S. Y. K., Zhou, G. S., & Zhu, X. K. (2016). Monitor Objectivity with Important Clients: Evidence from Auditor Opinions Around the World. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(3), 263-294.

Garcia-Blandon, J., & Argiles, J. M. (2015). Audit Firm Tenure and Independence: A Comprehensive Investigation of Audit Qualifications in Spain. Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation, 24, 82-93.

Garrett, J., Hoitash, R., & Prawitt, D. F. (2014). Trust and Financial Reporting Quality. Journal of Accounting Research, 52(5), 1087–1125.

Ghosh, A. A., & Siriviriyakul, S. J. (2018). Quasi Rents to Audit Firms from Longer Tenure. Accounting Horizons, 32(2), 81-102.

González-Díaz, B., García-Fernández, R., & López-Díaz, A. (2015). Auditor Tenure and Audit Quality in Spanish State-Owned Foundations. Revista de Contabilidad, 18(2), 115-126.

Gul, F. A., Ma, S. M., & Lai, K. (2017). Busy Auditors, Partner-Client Tenure, and Audit Quality: Evidence from an Emerging Market. Journal of International Accounting Research, 16(1), 83-105.

Habbash, M. & Alghamdi, S. (2017). Audit Quality and Earnings Management in Less Developed Economies: The Case of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Management & Governance, 21(2), 351-373.

Habib, A., Jiang, H., & Zhou, D. (2015). Related-Party Transactions and Audit Fees: Evidence from China. Journal of International Accounting Research, 14(1), 59-83.

Habib, A., & Muhammadi, A. H. (2018). Political Connections and Audit Report Lag: Indonesian Evidence. International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, 26(1), 59-80.

Halperin, R., & Lai, K.-W. (2015). The Relation Between Auditor-Provided Tax Service Fees and Audit Fees After the Sarbanes–Oxley Act: From the Perspective of Cross-Selling of Services. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 30(3), 341–372.

He, X., Pittman, J. A., Rui, O. M., & Wu, D. (2017) Do Social Ties between External Auditors and Audit Committee Members Affect Audit Quality? The Accounting Review, 92(5), 61-87.

Hegazy, K., & Hegazy, M. (2018). Audit Firms and Industry Specialization in an Emerging Economy: Are We Witnessing Changing Environments or a Dominant Market? Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, 14(3), 338-362.

Herda, D. N., Petersen, M. J., & Fontaine, R. (2014). Does Client Participation in an External Audit Affect Their Satisfaction with the Audit Service? Managerial Auditing Journal, 29(9), 818-836,

Ho, S., & Hutchinson, M. (2010). Internal Audit Department Characteristics/Activities and Audit Fees: Some Evidence from Hong Kong firms. Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation, 19(2), 121–136.

Hu, F., Stewart, J., & Tan, W. (2017). CEO’s Political Connections, Institutions and Audit Opinions. Pacific Accounting Review, 29(3), 283-306.

Huddart, S. (2013), Discussion of Empirical Evidence on the Implicit Determinants of Compensation in Big 4 Audit Partnerships. Journal of Accounting Research, 51(2), 389-397.

Hussin, W. N. W., Bamahros, H. M., & Shukeri, S. N. (2018). Lead Engagement Partner Workload, Partner-Client Tenure and Audit Reporting Lag: Evidence from Malaysia. Managerial Auditing Journal, 33(3), 246-266.

Ika, S. R., & Ghazali, N A. M. (2012). Audit Committee Effectiveness and Timeliness of Reporting: Indonesian Evidence. Managerial Auditing Journal, 27(4), 403-424.

Irmawan, Y., Hudaib, M., & Haniffa, R. (2013). Exploring the Perceptions of Auditor Independence in Indonesia. Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, 4(2), 173-202.

Jeacle, I. (2017). Constructing Audit Society in the Virtual World: The Case of the Online Reviewer. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 30(1), 18-37.

Jenkins,D. S., & Vermeer, T. E. (2013). Audit Firm Rotation and Audit Quality: Evidence from Academic Research. Accounting Research Journal, 26(1), 75-84.

Jiang, W., & Son, M. (2015). Do Audit Fees Reflect Risk Premiums for Control Risk? Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 30(3), 318–340.

Johnson, E., Reichelt, K. J., & Soileau, J. S. (2018). No News is Bad News: Do PCAOB Part II Reports Have an Effect on Annually Inspected Firms’ Audit Fees and Audit Quality? Journal of Accounting Literature, 41, 106-126.

Judd, J. S., Olsen, K. J., & Stekelberg, J. (2017). How Do Auditors Respond to CEO Narcissism? Evidence from External Audit Fees. Accounting Horizons, 31(4), 33-52.

Kandemir, H. (2013). The EU Law on Auditing and the Role of Auditors in the Global Financial Crisis of 2008. International Journal of Disclosure and Governance, 10(3), 213-233.

Karim, A. W., & Zijl, T. V. (2013). Efficiency and Opportunism in Auditor Quality Choice in Emerging Audit Services Markets: The Case of Bangladesh. International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, 21(3), 241-256.

Karim, K., Robin, A., & Suh, S. (2016). Board Structure and Audit Committee Monitoring: Effects of Audit Committee Monitoring Incentives and Board Entrenchment on Audit Fees. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 31(2), 249–276.

Kassem, R., & Higson, A. W. (2016). External Auditors and Corporate Corruption: Implications for External Audit Regulators. Current Issues in Auditing, 10(1), 1-10.

Khalil, M., & Ozkan, A. (2016). Board Independence, Audit Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Egypt. Journal of Emerging Market Finance, 15(1), 84–118.

Kharuddin, K. A. M., & Basioudis, I. G. (2018). Big 4 Audit Fee Premiums for National‐ and City‐Specific Industry Leadership in the UK: Additional Evidence. International Journal of Auditing, 22(1), 65–82.

Kleinman, G. & Lin, B. B. (2017). Audit Regulation in an International Setting: Testing the Impact of Religion, Culture, Market Factors, and Legal Code on National Regulatory Efforts. International Journal of Disclosure and Governance, 14(1), 62-94.

Kleinman, G., Lin, B. B., & Palmon, D. (2014). Audit Quality: A Cross-National Comparison of Audit Regulatory Regimes. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 29(1), 61–87.

Knechel, W. R., Niemi, L., & Zerni, M. (2013). Empirical Evidence on the Implicit Determinants of Compensation in Big 4 Audit Partnerships. Journal of Accounting Research, 51(2), 349-387.

Krauß, P., Quosigk, B. M., & Zülch, H. (2014), Effects of Initial Audit Fee Discounts on Audit Quality. International Journal of Auditing, 18(1), 40-56.

Kwarto, F. (2015). Pengaruh Opinion Shopping dan Pengalaman Auditor terhadap Penerimaan Opini Audit Going Concern dalam Sisi Pandang Perusahaan Auditan. Jurnal Akuntansi, 19(3), 311–325.

Lisic, L. L. (2014). Auditor-Provided Tax Services and Earnings Management in Tax Expense: The Importance of Audit Committees. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 29(3), 340–366.

Litjens, R., Buuren, J., & Vergoossen, R. (2015), Addressing Information Needs to Reduce the Audit Expectation Gap: Evidence from Dutch Bankers, Audited Companies and Auditors. International Journal of Auditing, 19(3), 267-281.

Mao, M. Q., & Yu, Y. (2015). Analysts' Cash Flow Forecasts, Audit Effort, and Audit Opinions on Internal Control. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, 42(5-6), 635-664.

Mardijuwono, A. W., & Subianto, C. (2018). Independence, Professionalism, Professional Skepticism: The Relation Toward the Resulted Audit Quality. Asian Journal of Accounting Research, 3(1), 61-71.

Marques, A., & Pinto, A. (2018). Procurement Practices and the Municipality Auditing Market. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 33(1), 1-27.

Merawati, E., & Haryani, I. (2015). Komite Audit, Audit Internal, dan Audit Eksternal sebagai Pengawas Solvabilitas Perusahaan Asuransi. Jurnal Akuntansi Multiparadigma, 6(1), 11-19.

Miettunen, K., & Metsälä, E. (2017). Auditor Recommendations Resulting from Three Clinical Audit Rounds in Finnish Radiology Units. Acta Radiologica, 58(6), 692–697.

Mironiuc, M., & Robu, I. B. (2012). Empirical Study on the Analysis of the Influence of the Audit Fees and Non Audit Fees Ratio to the Fraud Risk. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62, 179–183.

Mohamed, D. M., & Habib, M. H. (2013). Auditor Independence, Audit Quality and the Mandatory Auditor Rotation in Egypt. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 6(2), 116-144.

Muhammadi, A. H., Ahmed, Z., & Habib, A. (2016). Multinational Transfer Pricing of Intangible Assets: Indonesian Tax Auditors’ Perspectives. Asian Review of Accounting, 24(3), 313-337.

Muhsin, M. (2018). Peran Tekanan Anggaran Waktu Auditor dalam Memoderasi Effort dan Kinerja Audit Judgment. Jurnal Akuntansi Multiparadigma, 9(2), 223-235.

Newton, N. J., Persellin, J. S., Wang, D., & Wilkins, M. S. (2015). Internal Control Opinion Shopping and Audit Market Competition. The Accounting Review, 91(2), 603–623.

Ng, H. Y., Tronnes, P. C., & Wong, L. (2018). Audit Seasonality and Pricing of Audit Services: Theory and Evidence from a Meta-Analysis. Journal of Accounting Literature, 40, 16-28.

Nguyen, P. T., & Kend, M. (2017). The Perceived Motivations Behind the Introduction of the Law on External Audit in Vietnam. Managerial Auditing Journal, 32(1), 90-108.

Nindita, C., & Siregar, S. V. (2013). Analisis Pengaruh Ukuran Kantor Akuntan Publik terhadap Kualitas Audit di Indonesia. Jurnal Akuntansi dan Keuangan, 14(2), 91–104.

Read, W. J. (2015). Auditor Fees and Going-Concern Reporting Decisions on Bankrupt Companies: Additional Evidence. Current Issues in Auditing, 9(1), 13-27.

Rezaei, F. M., & Mohd‐Saleh, N. (2018), Audit Report Lag: The Role of Auditor Type and Increased Competition in the Audit Market. Accounting and Finance, 58(3) 885-920.

Rezaei, F. M., Mohd‐Saleh, N., Jaffar, R., & Hassan, M. S. (2016). The Effects of Audit Market Liberalisation and Auditor Type on Audit Opinions: The Iranian Experience. International Journal of Auditing, 20(1), 87–100.

Robertson, J. C., Stefaniak, C. M., & Houston, R. W. (2014). Do PCAOB Inspection Reports Influence Corporate Executives' Perceptions of Audit Quality and the Likelihood of Switching Auditors? Accounting and the Public Interest, 14(1), 48-71.

Rusmin, & Evans, J. (2017). Audit Quality and Audit Report Lag: Case of Indonesian Listed Companies. Asian Review of Accounting, 25(2), 191-210.

Saito, Y., & Takeda, F. (2014). Global Audit Firm Networks and Their Reputation Risk. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 29(3), 203–237.

Shafie, R., Hussin, W. N. W., Yusof, M. ’Atef M., & Hussain, M. H. M. (2009). Audit Firm Tenure and Auditor Reporting Quality: Evidence in Malaysia. International Business Research, 2(2), 99–109.

Sinha, P., & Hunt, H. G. (2013). Auditor Independence: A Nonparametric Test of Differences Across the Big‐5 Public Accounting Firms. Accounting Perspective, 12(4), 301-320.

Syamsuddin. (2017). The Government Whistleblowers in Generating Audit Quality (A Survey on Provincial Audit Boards in South, Central, and West Sulawesi, Indonesia). International Journal of Law and Management, 59(6), 1046-1058.

Tepalagul, N., & Lin, L. (2015). Auditor Independence and Audit Quality: A Literature Review. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 30(1), 101–121.

Verawaty, V., Jaya, A., & Megawati, M. (2016). Determinan Timeliness Penetapan Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Daerah Pemerintah Provinsi. Jurnal Akuntansi Multiparadigma, 7(3), 498-508.

Verbruggen, S., Christiaens, J., Reheul, A.-M., & Caneghem, T. V. (2015). Analysis of Audit Fees for Nonprofits: Resource Dependence and Agency Theory Approaches. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 44(4), 734–754.

Wahab, E. A. A., Zain, M. M., & Rahman, R. A. (2015). Political Connections: A Threat to Auditor Independence? Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, 5(2), 222-246.

Widuri, R., O’Connell, B., & Yapa, P. W. S. (2016). Adopting Generalized Audit Software: An Indonesian Perspective. Managerial Auditing Journal, 31(8/9), 821-847.

Wu, X. (2012). Corporate Governance and Audit fees: Evidence from Companies Listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange. China Journal of Accounting Research, 5(4), 321–342.

Xie, Z., Cai, C., & Ye, J. (2010). Abnormal Audit Fees and Audit Opinion – Further Evidence from China’s Capital Market. China Journal of Accounting Research, 3, 51–70.

Yuejun, T., (2011). Audit Fees, Motivation of Avoiding Loss and Opinion Shopping: Test for Moderating Effect based on Evidences of Chinese Stock Market from 2001 to 2008. China Finance Review International, 1(3), 241-261.

Zgarni, I., Hlioui, K., & Zehri, F. (2016). Effective Audit Committee, Audit Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Tunisia. Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, 6(2), 138-155.

Zhang, H. (2017). The Relationship of Abnormal Audit Fees and Accruals: Bargain Power or Cost Control? Open Journal of Accounting, 6, 82–94.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Verawaty, Ade Kemala Jaya, Restu Pratiwi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.